Under the dilemma of the environment and developme

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Paper industry: the dilemma between environment and development (Part 2)

disputes over tree species have arisen.

however, it was found in the interview that there are considerable disputes about what tree species should be used to develop artificial forests, especially for fast-growing and high-yield eucalyptus forests suitable for planting in the south. Some experts engaged in animal and plant research and environmental protection believe that eucalyptus plantation will seriously damage the ecological environment

Xie Yan, Ph.D. of ecology, Institute of zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said: "Eucalyptus is native to Australia, and its survival characteristics and ecological habits are in harmony with the surrounding natural ecological environment and species. However, once a species leaves its origin and goes to a foreign country, its original excellent biological characteristics (such as strong adaptability) It may become harmful. It has great exclusivity to the protozoan species in different places and grows rapidly. No other species can survive with it. "

professor yangyuming, vice president of Southwest Forestry University of China, also said: "the history of Eucalyptus planting in China is not long, but the ecological and environmental impacts, especially the reduction of biodiversity, do exist, but the degree is different in different regions."

to sum up, the disputes about Eucalyptus Plantation mainly focus on three points: excessive water absorption, destruction of soil fertility and exclusion

chenshaoxiong, chief expert of Eucalyptus research and development center of the State Forestry Administration, believes that: "At present, Brazil is the country with the fastest development of Eucalyptus, the highest level of artificial afforestation and the highest utilization rate among countries in the world. There are far more Eucalyptus planted than us. There is no problem. First of all, it is necessary to connect the connecting line of the power supply. This shows that it is not the problem of Eucalyptus itself, but the problem of management. Those experts who oppose Eucalyptus planting are not Eucalyptus experts. They are not very clear. They rush to make a conclusion after looking at a few woodlands. The scientific attitude is not comprehensive We should give full play to its advantages and overcome its disadvantages. "

Leizhou Peninsula in Guangdong has the largest area of Eucalyptus Plantations in China. The total area of Eucalyptus plantations has reached 186000 hectares (2.79 million mu), most of which are Eucalyptus. Linkangying, who used to be the director of Zhanjiang Forestry Bureau for a long time, pointed out: "it has been more than 50 years since Eucalyptus was planted in Leizhou. If Eucalyptus destroys the soil power, the output of Eucalyptus should be lower and lower now. However, the fact is that the output of Eucalyptus Plantation here has increased from 0.3 cubic meters/mu · year in 1970 to 1.5 cubic meters/mu · year at present, overcoming the difficult years when the old digital tube display is prone to failure."

both eucalyptus and Eucalyptus are planted in Chinese Mainland. Why do experts and scholars have different opinions

in fact, many disputes about Eucalyptus are caused by different management methods. During the field visit in southern China, it was found that many eucalyptus plantations were planted collectively or individually in rural areas, and the afforestation density was often as high as 300 ~ 666 trees per mu, which was several times larger than the scientific afforestation of 100 ~ 150 trees per mu. If any tree species are planted too densely, no grass will grow under the forest. Therefore, this unscientific planting method creates the illusion that there is no grass at the bottom of Eucalyptus, and the forest yield is also very low. In addition, local farmers "cut down the whole eucalyptus tree" (i.e. harvest and take away all the trunk, book cover, leaves, branches, roots, etc.), 80% - 90% of the nutrient elements are brought out of the plantation ecosystem, seriously affecting the nutrient cycle of the eucalyptus plantation

seek solutions to safety and environmental protection

for different views, Weidiansheng, director of the afforestation department of the State Forestry Administration, once clearly pointed out in the report: "It's normal to have disputes, but you can't live in them. Otherwise, development will be delayed. We must pay attention to scientific planning for fast-growing plantations, and the specific design should be adapted to local conditions. We must not make the area of pure eucalyptus plantations too large, and we must pay attention to the cooperation of multiple species and consider comprehensive support. Otherwise, it is likely to cause instability in the ecosystem. However, this does not mean that every eucalyptus plantation should be mixed. Industrial raw material forests need intensive management, If every piece of forest land is mixed, there is no way to harvest or manage it. When planting trees, methods such as staggered arrangement of forest blocks of different tree species can be adopted to reduce the 'purity' of the artificial forest. "

in addition, the Chinese Academy of forestry Professor Wang Huoran of the expert group on forest genetic resources of the food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has made a good interpretation of the plantation from the perspective of positioning and function: "The primary goal of plantation is to pursue the highest wood yield and the best wood quality, just as hybrid rice and maize pursue high yield and nutrition. If we regard trees, rice and maize as crops that can provide different products and meet different survival needs for human society, what is the reason for us to insist that foreign fast-growing industrial plantations must have biodiversity?" Professor wanghuoran stressed: "it is precisely because industrial plantations have been developed in the form of industries that we can maximize the protection of biodiversity and ecological functions of natural forest ecosystems."

analysts believe that there should be a change in our traditional view that forests can produce foam plates of different thicknesses. Forests are not only to create ecological benefits, but also to create economic benefits. Just as the State Forestry Administration divides forests into public welfare forests and commercial forests, the former pursues the maximization of ecological benefits and the latter pursues the maximization of economic benefits. Plantation is actually a tree crop. At the same time, there is no need to completely deny the exotic tree species -- the native North American Wutong tree, which is now growing widely in China, dressing up the street view of the city? The key is to analyze scientifically

we must clearly realize that China must not only develop its own paper industry, but also pay attention to the protection of environmental resources; In order to achieve a win-win situation between industry and environment, it is necessary to take wood pulp as raw material, expand the scale, vigorously develop artificial forests, and take the road of Forest Pulp paper integration. In fact, the three paper-making enterprises selected into the top 500 Chinese enterprises in 2005 are ahead of traditional paper-making enterprises in environmental protection and plantation construction. According to the statistics of China forestry and paper entrepreneurs' club, the COD emissions of large paper enterprises whose output accounts for more than 40% of China's paper industry are less than 10% of the emissions of the whole industry. For example, the output of Chenming Paper in 2004 was 2.6 million tons, and the COD emission was 15000 tons, only 17% of the industry average level; App, the largest paper industry group in China, has a total output of more than 5 million tons and a total COD emission of low carbon steel even if its pulp plant in Hainan is included: the sample is gradually flattened to only more than 5200 tons, which is 3% of the industry average. In terms of afforestation, as of August2005, app has planted nearly 4million mu of artificial forests, mainly in South China, and is the most powerful promoter of Forest Pulp paper integration in China. Chenming and Huatai Group have also built more than 1million mu of artificial forest. Although the output of these plantations is still a drop in the bucket compared with the huge demand for China's paper-making raw materials, they are looking for ways to break through the "environmental gate", marking that China's modern paper industry has embarked on the road of harmonious development with the environment. It's a long way to go. I'll look up and down. It's reasonable to believe that the ancient Chinese invented papermaking. Modern Chinese people must also find a way out of the trouble of "environmental gate"

source: China Business Times

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