Under the diversification of forest paper integrat

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Forest paper integration -- investment diversification (Part 2)

talking about the institutional obstacles to the marketization of forestry is by no means to blame the leaders and experts of the forestry department. Because the special status of forestry involves forest law, rural land contract law, taxes and fees, it is impossible for the Department to carry out any major system reform. Nevertheless, the leaders and employees of the forestry department have made great achievements in closing mountains for afforestation and afforestation, which is really hard won

however, the market-oriented reform of industrial plantations is imminent, and the following problems and obstacles cannot be avoided:

(1) friction coefficient( μ) The forest land use right is separated from the logging right, that is, the industrial plantation is subject to the planned management of limited cutting. The owner has no independent right to dispose of the forest land, and cannot cut according to the market demand to replace the lead in perovskite solar cells

(2) at present, the property right structure of forest land is mainly composed of three parts: state-owned forest farm, collective forest farm and farmers' decentralized contracting under collective ownership. As the industrial marketization must be based on the exchange of property rights, the exchange of property rights between state-owned forest farms and collective forest farms is difficult to exchange when the form of property rights realization is "not in place", which is incompatible with the market economy. As for the forest land contracted by farmers, it is very difficult to centralize these lands for intensive management due to the problems of contract period and circulation

(3) according to the survey and statistical analysis, there are more than 20 timber taxes in China, accounting for more than 50% of the primary sales price, and even more than 70% of the timber sales price in some places. Moreover, due to the lack of separation between government and enterprises, the complete forestry industry process is artificially divided into three parts: forest management, forest industry and circulation, resulting in the change of tax calculation and collection links and the expansion of tax collection scope, resulting in the juxtaposition of multiple taxes and repeated tax collection. This tax and fee system has lost the fairness under the balanced market conditions, so that the income of forest investors is only about 20% of the wood price, which is a kind of forceful attack and deprivation to farmers and other investors

4 the core of forest paper marketization is investment diversification

the essence of market economy is market allocation of resources, that is, the allocation of resources is realized through the transaction of property rights. In the modern developed market economy, clear and complete property rights coexist with standardized and fair competition. In the underdeveloped non market economy, property rights are often incomplete and vague, and competition is often abnormal. Therefore, it is necessary to implement the marketization of forestry and paper, and finally establish an industrial market economic model with clear and complete property rights, standardized and fair competition. Its core is the diversification of investment subjects (investment diversification for short). Considering the difference between forestry and paper industry, and taking over the above forestry institutional obstacles, we should focus on how to realize the diversification of forestry investment, that is, how to realize the transformation from the current state investment to foreign investment and private investment

first of all, we should gradually remove the institutional obstacles of forestry, and the state should concentrate on solving the above three major problems:

(1 in order to meet the progress requirements of Structural Engineering), we should completely separate ecological forests from industrial plantations, the government should manage ecological forests, and industrial plantations should be handed over to enterprises and the market according to law

(2) take the reform of property right system of collective forest farms as a breakthrough to drive the reform of state-owned forest farms. For the forest land contracted by farmers, the contract period should be extended, and the transaction of forest land use right should be gradually liberalized. Finally, the forest land use right will be transferred to a permanent one, which can be transferred in a wide range according to law

(3) separating government from enterprises, establishing a large forestry market with norms and fairness, and greatly reducing taxes and fees

secondly, it is necessary to explore various measures to promote investment diversification:

(1) due to the high risks of forestry, such as diseases, pests, fires, etc., it is necessary to explore the possibility of establishing industrial plantation insurance. The state can draw insurance funds from the taxes of the forest paper industry to attract enterprises to invest

(2) explore and establish the market of living wood forest. One of the main reasons that hinder foreign and private capital from investing in forestry is the long growth period of trees, which not only increases the risk, but also reduces the liquidity of assets. An effective solution is to establish a live forest market, which allows land of any size with any kind of trees to be traded at any time

(3) diversify investment methods and explore the possibility of issuing bonds and stocks

it can be seen from the above that the integration of forestry and paper involves many major issues related to the system in China, and the above discussion is only a part of them. It can be said that the large systematic project of forest paper integration is an important part of China's "three rural" issues, because 70% of our country is mountainous, and the farmers in mountainous areas are relatively poor, which is a difficult place for farmers to increase their income. If we can take a pragmatic and innovative attitude, take the integration of forestry and paper as a breakthrough, drive the farmers in mountainous areas to improve the quality and level of life while improving China's ecological environment, so as to promote the gradual development and effective solution of the "three rural" issues, which will be a real big step forward in solving the difficulties of the "three rural" issues, the core issue of China's economic and social development

"The issue of agriculture, rural areas and farmers has broken through the economic dimension and become a comprehensive social issue. It can be said that among the 700 million people living in rural China, about half of them are still living in poverty. They constitute an unconstrained and unstable army of poverty. In today's increasingly developed society of information, transportation and communication, the society in their eyes is increasingly becoming a society of political inequality, unbalanced interests and development An unbalanced society with unfair opportunities and a very different living environment. "

"it can be predicted that China's rural reform will become the highlight of a new round of reform from the year of the Ming Dynasty, including the year of the semi truck. However, many agricultural and rural experts at home and abroad generally believe that to fundamentally solve China's' three rural 'problems, we must cut in the land system, the registered residence system and the grass-roots political power system, otherwise it will consume huge resources and the effect may not be very good." (jiangrushan 2002)

to remove the institutional obstacles of forest paper integration, the problems mentioned by experts involve:

(1) the permanence and circulation of mountain property rights -- to solve the contradiction between small land contracting and large-scale operation

(2) registered residence system: there are very few township enterprises in mountainous areas, which can accelerate farmers' entry into cities, increase farmers' income and coordinate the development with urbanization

(3) the reform of rural political power system and forestry management system is inseparable

of course, it is also very important to greatly reduce taxes and fees in mountainous areas. Take the current 2million tons of wood pulp (900) 5 cubic meters of paper-making materials as an example. If the tax is fully exempted, it will only be about 2billion yuan. Even if it is developed to 10million tons of wood pulp and 45007y cubic meters of wood in the future, it will be only 10billion yuan. This is the "development debt" that we should pay farmers, because "economic development is the absolute principle, and social justice is also the absolute principle." (Hu Angang 2002)

the reform of these major issues is not only an urgent task (because the root cause of the widening gap between urban and rural areas lies in the slow development of mountainous areas), but also a local breakthrough without losing stability

in a word, only when we look at the forestry paper integration with a new perspective can we have a substantial breakthrough and development. Let's start here in the new century and keep pace with the times

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